April 23, 2014
April 22, 2014
If a black woman and a white woman both need emergency obstetric care, a Brazilian doctor will assist the white woman because of the stereotype that black women are better at handling pain and are used to giving birth.

IPS – Brazil study: Racism Is Bad for Health | Inter Press Service

Read the rest of the study at the link, with details on how this racism in healthcare plays out.

(via redlightpolitics)

???????

(via brownbootyextract)

Same thing in the US
Most doctors believe that Black people are used to pain which is the reason Black people supposedly have a higher pain tolerance

For instance, a white patient coming in for Abdominal pain will get x rays, blood test, urine test etc to directly identify the problem

Compared to a Black patient, which in many cases will just receive pain killers and water

I work in the ER

(via postracialcomments)

(via fyeahcracker)

neuromorphogenesis:

To quash depression, some brain cells must push through the stress
The nature of psychological resilience has, in recent years, been a subject of enormous interest to researchers, who have wondered how some people endure and even thrive under a certain amount of stress, and others crumble and fall prey to depression. The resulting research has underscored the importance of feeling socially connected and the value of psychotherapy to identify and exercise patterns of thought that protect against hopelessness and defeat.
But what does psychological resilience look like inside our brains, at the cellular level? Such knowledge might help bolster peoples’ immunity to depression and even treat people under chronic stress. And a new study published Thursday in Science magazine has made some progress in the effort to see the brain struggling with — and ultimately triumphing over — stress.
A group of neuroscientists at Mount Sinai’s Icahn School of Medicine in New York focused on the dopaminergic cells in the brain’s ventral tegmentum, a key node in the brain’s reward circuitry and therefore an important place to look at how social triumph and defeat play out in the brain. In mice under stress because they were either chronically isolated or rebuffed or attacked by fellow littermates, the group had observed that this group of neurons become overactive.
It would logically follow, then, that if you don’t want stressed mice (or people) to become depressed, you would want to avoid hyperactivity in that key group of neurons, right?
Actually, wrong, the researchers found. In a series of experiments, they saw that the mice who were least prone to behave in socially defeated ways when under stress were actually the ones whose dopaminergic cells in the ventral tegmental area displayed the greatest levels of hyperactivity in response to stress. And that hyperactivity was most pronounced in the neurons that extended from the tegmentum into the nearby nucleus accumbens, also a key node in the brain’s reward system.
The researchers wondered whether inducing similar hyperactivity in mice prone to depression — effectively pushing these cells to signal even faster and harder — might help bolster them against succumbing to passivity and defeat when under stress? Using antidepressant medication, viruses and lights that turn circuits on and off, they found that it could. By activating the chemical processes that induced the same level of hyperactivity seen in the ventral tegmenta of resilient mice, they made depression-prone mice more hardy and happy in the face of stress.
The results suggest something profound about the brain and depression: that in the healthy and psychologically resilient, stress induces its own chemical countermeasures, fostering a sort of psychological equilibrium. Someday medications might employ strategies that help promote such equilibrium to head off depression before it starts, as well as to treat it once it has set in.

neuromorphogenesis:

To quash depression, some brain cells must push through the stress

The nature of psychological resilience has, in recent years, been a subject of enormous interest to researchers, who have wondered how some people endure and even thrive under a certain amount of stress, and others crumble and fall prey to depression. The resulting research has underscored the importance of feeling socially connected and the value of psychotherapy to identify and exercise patterns of thought that protect against hopelessness and defeat.

But what does psychological resilience look like inside our brains, at the cellular level? Such knowledge might help bolster peoples’ immunity to depression and even treat people under chronic stress. And a new study published Thursday in Science magazine has made some progress in the effort to see the brain struggling with — and ultimately triumphing over — stress.

A group of neuroscientists at Mount Sinai’s Icahn School of Medicine in New York focused on the dopaminergic cells in the brain’s ventral tegmentum, a key node in the brain’s reward circuitry and therefore an important place to look at how social triumph and defeat play out in the brain. In mice under stress because they were either chronically isolated or rebuffed or attacked by fellow littermates, the group had observed that this group of neurons become overactive.

It would logically follow, then, that if you don’t want stressed mice (or people) to become depressed, you would want to avoid hyperactivity in that key group of neurons, right?

Actually, wrong, the researchers found. In a series of experiments, they saw that the mice who were least prone to behave in socially defeated ways when under stress were actually the ones whose dopaminergic cells in the ventral tegmental area displayed the greatest levels of hyperactivity in response to stress. And that hyperactivity was most pronounced in the neurons that extended from the tegmentum into the nearby nucleus accumbens, also a key node in the brain’s reward system.

The researchers wondered whether inducing similar hyperactivity in mice prone to depression — effectively pushing these cells to signal even faster and harder — might help bolster them against succumbing to passivity and defeat when under stress? Using antidepressant medication, viruses and lights that turn circuits on and off, they found that it could. By activating the chemical processes that induced the same level of hyperactivity seen in the ventral tegmenta of resilient mice, they made depression-prone mice more hardy and happy in the face of stress.

The results suggest something profound about the brain and depression: that in the healthy and psychologically resilient, stress induces its own chemical countermeasures, fostering a sort of psychological equilibrium. Someday medications might employ strategies that help promote such equilibrium to head off depression before it starts, as well as to treat it once it has set in.

(Source: Los Angeles Times)

April 18, 2014
neuromorphogenesis:

Canadian student has “out of body experiences” whenever she wants
After attending a lecture on “out of body experiences,” a 24-year-old student from the University of Ottawa approached her professor saying, “I thought everybody could do that.” She can apparently do this at will — making her the first person with this condition to be studied.
The resulting paper, which now appears in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, describes the condition as something of an illusion, where a person’s ability to track their body’s position in space and time has somehow become externalized. In this extraordinary case, the university student claims she can do this whenever she wants — to induce the feeling that she can experience her body moving outside the boundaries of her physical body, while remaining aware of her unmoving physical body.
So, if you’re a neuroscientist studying this particular person, what do you do? You put her in a brain scanner, of course. Writing in ABC News, Gillian Mohney explains more:

[Claude] Messier and his co-author interviewed the student and had her undergo an MRI to see if her brain activity might shed light on her unusual ability.
Messier said the girl first noticed her ability when she was a child and had a hard time going to sleep during naps. To pass the time she would “float” above her body.
"I feel myself moving, or, more accurately, can make myself feel as if I am moving. I know perfectly well that I am not actually moving," the student told the researchers. "In fact, I am hyper-sensitive to my body at that point, because I am concentrating so hard on the sensation of moving…For example, if I ‘spin’ for long enough, I get dizzy."
Messier said at some point the student’s brain showed similar activity to that of a high-level athlete who can vividly imagine themselves winning a competition. One difference, however, was that her brain activity was focused on one side, and the athletes usually show activity on both brain hemispheres.
Messier said more study was needed, but he said that this discovery could mean many more people have this ability but find it “unremarkable.” The discovery could be similar to how synesthesia, a mix of multiple senses, was discovered in a wider population.
Alternately, the ability could be something that everyone is able to do as an infant or child, but lose as they get older.

Wild stuff. Typically, this condition happens as the result of an injury, psychological illness, lesions on the brain, or from a drug that induces the illusion. The researchers speculate that this ability might be present in infancy but that it’s lost without regular practice. They also hypothesize that it’s more prevalent in young people… and that it’s a skill that might be developed.

neuromorphogenesis:

Canadian student has “out of body experiences” whenever she wants

After attending a lecture on “out of body experiences,” a 24-year-old student from the University of Ottawa approached her professor saying, “I thought everybody could do that.” She can apparently do this at will — making her the first person with this condition to be studied.

The resulting paper, which now appears in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, describes the condition as something of an illusion, where a person’s ability to track their body’s position in space and time has somehow become externalized. In this extraordinary case, the university student claims she can do this whenever she wants — to induce the feeling that she can experience her body moving outside the boundaries of her physical body, while remaining aware of her unmoving physical body.

So, if you’re a neuroscientist studying this particular person, what do you do? You put her in a brain scanner, of course. Writing in ABC News, Gillian Mohney explains more:

[Claude] Messier and his co-author interviewed the student and had her undergo an MRI to see if her brain activity might shed light on her unusual ability.

Messier said the girl first noticed her ability when she was a child and had a hard time going to sleep during naps. To pass the time she would “float” above her body.

"I feel myself moving, or, more accurately, can make myself feel as if I am moving. I know perfectly well that I am not actually moving," the student told the researchers. "In fact, I am hyper-sensitive to my body at that point, because I am concentrating so hard on the sensation of moving…For example, if I ‘spin’ for long enough, I get dizzy."

Messier said at some point the student’s brain showed similar activity to that of a high-level athlete who can vividly imagine themselves winning a competition. One difference, however, was that her brain activity was focused on one side, and the athletes usually show activity on both brain hemispheres.

Messier said more study was needed, but he said that this discovery could mean many more people have this ability but find it “unremarkable.” The discovery could be similar to how synesthesia, a mix of multiple senses, was discovered in a wider population.

Alternately, the ability could be something that everyone is able to do as an infant or child, but lose as they get older.

Wild stuff. Typically, this condition happens as the result of an injury, psychological illness, lesions on the brain, or from a drug that induces the illusion. The researchers speculate that this ability might be present in infancy but that it’s lost without regular practice. They also hypothesize that it’s more prevalent in young people… and that it’s a skill that might be developed.

April 11, 2014
neuromorphogenesis:

Did You Hear That? Specific Brain Activity Linked With Imagined Hearing
Being able to distinguish what is real and what is not may seem pretty basic, but the inability to perform this task could be a marker of many psychiatric disorders. This task, known to researchers as “reality monitoring,” is at the core of a study from scientists at Yale University.
Previous research has demonstrated that there are specific brain areas related to whether a person correctly identifies a visual stimulus as something that actually happened or was “self-generated.” Researchers Eriko Sugimori, Marcia Johnson, and colleagues at Yale University hypothesized that this relationship may not be specific to just the visual system, and that specific brain activity may also distinguish heard and imagined words.
To find out, the researchers had participants undergo an auditory task in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner.
The participants were shown a cue on a computer screen telling them whether they would hear a word, imagine a word spoken by a recorded male voice, or see a shape. After this cue, they were presented with the given word or shape and then instructed to rate from 1-3 on how well they heard or imagined the word, or rate whether the shape was more square or circular.
Approximately five minutes after the scan, the participants completed a test in which they were shown a word on screen and asked to indicate whether they had heard the word, imagined the word, or if the word had not been presented.
The researchers analyzed the fMRI data and found that increased activity in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during encoding for imagined words was associated with correctly identifying them as “imagined” later. And an area of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) showed greater activity during encoding for words that were later reported as “heard” versus “imagined,” regardless of the actual source of the word.
Intriguingly, the fMRI data also showed that activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) for mistakenly “heard” items was greater for participants who were more prone to auditory hallucinations (as measured by the Auditory Hallucination Experience Scale).
Temporal regions of the brain, like the STG, are often involved in processing auditory information, and the researchers hypothesized that errors in reality monitoring might occur when STG activity is increased during auditory imagination – that is, increased activity in the STG may provide a false signal that a word was heard when it was only imagined.
“It may be that people prone to auditory hallucinations are good auditory imagers — that is, they relatively effortlessly or spontaneously produce vivid auditory imaginations that rival those of actually heard words,” Sugimori and colleagues write.
The researchers believe these findings may be important for identifying neural correlates of behavior in certain psychiatric populations, including individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, for whom hallucinations are symptoms associated with the illness.

neuromorphogenesis:

Did You Hear That? Specific Brain Activity Linked With Imagined Hearing

Being able to distinguish what is real and what is not may seem pretty basic, but the inability to perform this task could be a marker of many psychiatric disorders. This task, known to researchers as “reality monitoring,” is at the core of a study from scientists at Yale University.

Previous research has demonstrated that there are specific brain areas related to whether a person correctly identifies a visual stimulus as something that actually happened or was “self-generated.” Researchers Eriko Sugimori, Marcia Johnson, and colleagues at Yale University hypothesized that this relationship may not be specific to just the visual system, and that specific brain activity may also distinguish heard and imagined words.

To find out, the researchers had participants undergo an auditory task in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner.

The participants were shown a cue on a computer screen telling them whether they would hear a word, imagine a word spoken by a recorded male voice, or see a shape. After this cue, they were presented with the given word or shape and then instructed to rate from 1-3 on how well they heard or imagined the word, or rate whether the shape was more square or circular.

Approximately five minutes after the scan, the participants completed a test in which they were shown a word on screen and asked to indicate whether they had heard the word, imagined the word, or if the word had not been presented.

The researchers analyzed the fMRI data and found that increased activity in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during encoding for imagined words was associated with correctly identifying them as “imagined” later. And an area of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) showed greater activity during encoding for words that were later reported as “heard” versus “imagined,” regardless of the actual source of the word.

Intriguingly, the fMRI data also showed that activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) for mistakenly “heard” items was greater for participants who were more prone to auditory hallucinations (as measured by the Auditory Hallucination Experience Scale).

Temporal regions of the brain, like the STG, are often involved in processing auditory information, and the researchers hypothesized that errors in reality monitoring might occur when STG activity is increased during auditory imagination – that is, increased activity in the STG may provide a false signal that a word was heard when it was only imagined.

“It may be that people prone to auditory hallucinations are good auditory imagers — that is, they relatively effortlessly or spontaneously produce vivid auditory imaginations that rival those of actually heard words,” Sugimori and colleagues write.

The researchers believe these findings may be important for identifying neural correlates of behavior in certain psychiatric populations, including individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, for whom hallucinations are symptoms associated with the illness.

April 10, 2014

"Now to demonstrate your devotion to the Spice Girls, I understand that you have a gift, and I wanted to challenge you on this gift tonight… you are able to do what?" "Their autographs." [x]

(Source: shaelinewoodley, via intersects)

April 9, 2014

y0urekillinmesmalls:

geturphilosphyfrmabumprstickr:

Thanks, Obama!

This is my favorite post of all time

(via theunsinkable)

April 8, 2014

As women, when we’re children we’re taught to enter the world with big hearts. Blooming hearts. Hearts bigger than our damn fists. We are taught to forgive - constantly - as opposed to what young boys are taught: Revenge, to get ‘even.’ Our empathy is constantly made appeals to, often demanded for. If we refuse to show kindness, we are reprimanded. We are not good women if we do not crush our bones to make more space for the world, if we do not spread our entire skin over rocks for others to tread on, if we do not kill ourselves in every meaning of the word in the process of making it cozy for everyone else. It is the heat generated by the burning of our bodies with which the world keeps warm. We are taught to sacrifice so much for so little. This is the general principle all over the world.

By the time we are young women, we are tired. Most of us are drained. Some of us enter a lock of silence because of that lethargy. Some of us lash out. When I think of that big, blooming heart we once had, it looks shriveled and worn out now. When I was teaching, I had a young student named Mariam. She was only 11 years old. Some boy pushed her around in class, called her names, broke her spirit for the day. We were sitting under a chestnut tree on a field trip and she asked me if a boy ever hurt me. I told her many did and I destroyed them one by one. I think that’s the first time she ever heard the word ‘destroyed.’ We rarely teach our girls to fight back for the right reasons.

Take up more space as a woman. Take up more time. Take your time. You are taught to hide, censor, move about without messing up decorum for a man’s comfort. Whether it’s said or not, you’re taught balance. Forget that. Displease. Disappoint. Destroy. Be loud, be righteous, be messy. Mess up and it’s fine – you are learning to unlearn. Do not see yourself like glass. Like you could get dirty and clean. You are flesh. You are not constant. You change. Society teaches women to maintain balance and that robs us of our volatility. Our mercurial hearts. Calm and chaos. Love only when needed; preserve otherwise.

Do not be a moth near the light; be the light itself. Do not let a man’s ocean-big ego swallow you up. Know what you want. Ask yourself first. Decide your own pace. Decide your own path. Be cruel when needed. Be gentle only when needed. Collapse and then re-construct. When someone says you are being obscene, say yes I am. When they say you are being wrong, say yes I am. When they say you are being selfish, say yes I am. Why shouldn’t I be? How do you expect a woman to stand on her two feet if you keep striking her at the ankles.

There are multiple lessons we must teach our young girls so that they render themselves their own pillars instead of keeping male approval as the focal point of their lives. It is so important to state your feelings of inconvenience as a woman. We are instructed to tailor ourselves and our discomfort - constantly told that we are ‘whining’ and ‘nagging’ and ‘complaining too much.’ That kind of silence is horribly violent, that kind of insistence upon uniformly nodding in agreement to your own despair, and smiling emptily so no man is ever uncomfortable around us. Male-entitlement dictates a woman’s silence. If we could see the mimetic model of the erasure of a woman’s voice, it would be an incredibly bloody sight.

On a breezy July night, my mother and I were sleeping under the open sky. Before dozing off, I told her that I think there is a special place in heaven where all wounded women bury their broken hearts and their hearts grow into trees that only give fruit to the good and poison to the bad. She smiled and said Ameen. Then she closed her eyes.

April 7, 2014
assangistan:

via anarcho-queer:

WikiLeaks: Obama Administration Pressured Haiti’s President To Lower Minimum Wage
A Wikileaks post published on The Nation shows that the Obama Administration fought to keep Haitian wages at 31 cents an hour.
Contractors for Fruit of the Loom, Hanes and Levi’s worked in close concert with the US Embassy when they aggressively moved to block a minimum wage increase for Haitian assembly zone workers, the lowest-paid in the hemisphere, according to secret State Department cables.
It started when Haiti passed a law two years ago raising its minimum wage to 61 cents an hour. According to an embassy cable:
This infuriated American corporations like Hanes and Levi Strauss that pay Haitians slave wages to sew their clothes. They said they would only fork over a seven-cent-an-hour increase, and they got the State Department involved. The U.S. ambassador put pressure on Haiti’s president, who duly carved out a $3 a day minimum wage for textile companies (the U.S. minimum wage, which itself is very low, works out to $58 a day).
Haiti has about 25,000 garment workers. If you paid each of them $2 a day more, it would cost their employers $50,000 per working day, or about $12.5 million a year … As of last year Hanes had 3,200 Haitians making t-shirts for it. Paying each of them two bucks a day more would cost it about $1.6 million a year. Hanesbrands Incorporated made $211 million on $4.3 billion in sales last year.
Thanks to U.S. intervention, the minimum was raised only to 31 cents.
The revelation of US support for low wages in Haiti’s assembly zones was in a trove of 1,918 cables made available to the Haitian weekly newspaper Haïti Liberté by the transparency group WikiLeaks. As part of a collaboration with Haïti Liberté, The Nation is publishing English-language articles based on those cables.

assangistan:

via anarcho-queer:

WikiLeaks: Obama Administration Pressured Haiti’s President To Lower Minimum Wage

A Wikileaks post published on The Nation shows that the Obama Administration fought to keep Haitian wages at 31 cents an hour.

Contractors for Fruit of the Loom, Hanes and Levi’s worked in close concert with the US Embassy when they aggressively moved to block a minimum wage increase for Haitian assembly zone workers, the lowest-paid in the hemisphere, according to secret State Department cables.

It started when Haiti passed a law two years ago raising its minimum wage to 61 cents an hour. According to an embassy cable:

This infuriated American corporations like Hanes and Levi Strauss that pay Haitians slave wages to sew their clothes. They said they would only fork over a seven-cent-an-hour increase, and they got the State Department involved. The U.S. ambassador put pressure on Haiti’s president, who duly carved out a $3 a day minimum wage for textile companies (the U.S. minimum wage, which itself is very low, works out to $58 a day).

Haiti has about 25,000 garment workers. If you paid each of them $2 a day more, it would cost their employers $50,000 per working day, or about $12.5 million a year … As of last year Hanes had 3,200 Haitians making t-shirts for it. Paying each of them two bucks a day more would cost it about $1.6 million a year. Hanesbrands Incorporated made $211 million on $4.3 billion in sales last year.

Thanks to U.S. intervention, the minimum was raised only to 31 cents.

The revelation of US support for low wages in Haiti’s assembly zones was in a trove of 1,918 cables made available to the Haitian weekly newspaper Haïti Liberté by the transparency group WikiLeaks. As part of a collaboration with Haïti Liberté, The Nation is publishing English-language articles based on those cables.

(via thisiswhiteprivilege)